# Sie sind auf: FAQ: things you need to know about namespaces

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language functions , include functions , variable functions , post functions

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## FAQ: things you need to know about namespaces

This FAQ is split into two sections: common questions, and some specifics of implementation that are helpful to understand fully.

First, the common questions.

There are a few implementation details of the namespace implementations that are helpful to understand.

### If I don't use namespaces, should I care about any of this?

No. Namespaces do not affect any existing code in any way, or any as-yet-to-be-written code that does not contain namespaces. You can write this code if you wish:

Beispiel #1 Accessing global classes outside a namespace

 <?php$a = new \stdClass;  This is functionally equivalent to: Beispiel #2 Accessing global classes outside a namespace  <?php$a = new stdClass; 

### How do I use internal or global classes in a namespace?

Beispiel #3 Accessing internal classes in namespaces

### How does a name like my\name resolve?

Names that contain a backslash but do not begin with a backslash like my\name can be resolved in 2 different ways.

If there is an import statement that aliases another name to my, then the import alias is applied to the my in my\name.

Otherwise, the current namespace name is prepended to my\name.

Beispiel #6 Qualified names

### How does an unqualified function name or unqualified constant name like name resolve?

Function or constant names that do not contain a backslash like name can be resolved in 2 different ways.

First, the current namespace name is prepended to name.

Finally, if the constant or function name does not exist in the current namespace, a global constant or function name is used if it exists.

Beispiel #8 Unqualified function or constant names

 <?phpnamespace foo;use blah\blah as foo;const FOO = 1;function my() {}function foo() {}function sort(&$a){ sort($a);    $a = array_flip($a);    return $a;}my(); // calls "foo\my"$a = strlen('hi'); // calls global function "strlen" because "foo\strlen" does not exist$arr = array(1,3,2);$b = sort($arr); // calls function "foo\sort"$c = foo(); // calls function "foo\foo" - import is not applied$a = FOO; // sets$a to value of constant "foo\FOO" - import is not applied$b = INI_ALL; // sets$b to value of global constant "INI_ALL"?> 

### Import names cannot conflict with classes defined in the same file.

The following script combinations are legal:

file1.php

 <?phpnamespace my\stuff;class MyClass {}?> 

another.php

 <?phpnamespace another;class thing {}?> 

file2.php

 <?phpnamespace my\stuff;include 'file1.php';include 'another.php';use another\thing as MyClass;$a = new MyClass; // instantiates class "thing" from namespace another?>  There is no name conflict, even though the class MyClass exists within the my\stuff namespace, because the MyClass definition is in a separate file. However, the next example causes a fatal error on name conflict because MyClass is defined in the same file as the use statement.  <?phpnamespace my\stuff;use another\thing as MyClass;class MyClass {} // fatal error: MyClass conflicts with import statement$a = new MyClass;?> 

### Nested namespaces are not allowed.

PHP does not allow nesting namespaces

 <?phpnamespace my\stuff {    namespace nested {        class foo {}    }}?> 
However, it is easy to simulate nested namespaces like so:
 <?phpnamespace my\stuff\nested {    class foo {}}?> 

### Neither functions nor constants can be imported via the use statement.

The only elements that are affected by use statements are namespaces and class names. In order to shorten a long constant or function, import its containing namespace

### Cannot override special constants NULL, TRUE, FALSE, ZEND_THREAD_SAFE or ZEND_DEBUG_BUILD

Any attempt to define a namespaced constant that is a special, built-in constant results in a fatal error

Beispiel #11 Undefined constants

 <?phpnamespace bar;const NULL = 0; // fatal error;const true = 'stupid'; // also fatal error;// etc.?> 

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